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Computer-aided design CAD is the use of computers or workstations to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations.

Its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation EDA. In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation MDA , which includes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software.

CAD software for mechanical design uses either vector-based graphics to depict the objects of traditional drafting, or may also produce raster graphics showing the overall appearance of designed objects. However, it involves more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings , the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials , processes , dimensions , and tolerances , according to application-specific conventions.

CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional 2D space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional 3D space. CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive , shipbuilding , and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design building information modeling , prosthetics , and many more.

CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals, often called DCC digital content creation. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the s.

Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry , computer graphics both hardware and software , and discrete differential geometry. The design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular, is occasionally called computer-aided geometric design CAGD.

Computer-aided design is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers and is used in many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in question. CAD is one part of the whole digital product development DPD activity within the product lifecycle management PLM processes, and as such is used together with other tools, which are either integrated modules or stand-alone products, such as:.

CAD is also used for the accurate creation of photo simulations that are often required in the preparation of environmental impact reports, in which computer-aided designs of intended buildings are superimposed into photographs of existing environments to represent what that locale will be like, where the proposed facilities are allowed to be built. Potential blockage of view corridors and shadow studies are also frequently analyzed through the use of CAD.

CAD has been proven to be useful to engineers as well. Using four properties which are history, features, parameterization , and high-level constraints. The construction history can be used to look back into the model’s personal features and work on the single area rather than the whole model. Parameters and constraints can be used to determine the size, shape, and other properties of the different modeling elements.

The features in the CAD system can be used for the variety of tools for measurement such as tensile strength, yield strength, electrical, or electromagnetic properties. Also its stress, strain, timing , or how the element gets affected in certain temperatures, etc. There are several different types of CAD, [10] each requiring the operator to think differently about how to use them and design their virtual components in a different manner for each. There are many producers of the lower-end 2D systems, including a number of free and open-source programs.

These provide an approach to the drawing process without all the fuss over scale and placement on the drawing sheet that accompanied hand drafting since these can be adjusted as required during the creation of the final draft. Each line has to be manually inserted into the drawing. The final product has no mass properties associated with it and cannot have features directly add to it, such as holes.

The operator approaches these in a similar fashion to the 2D systems, although many 3D systems allow using the wireframe model to make the final engineering drawing views. Basic three-dimensional geometric forms prisms, cylinders, spheres, rectangle have solid volumes added or subtracted from them as if assembling or cutting real-world objects. Two-dimensional projected views can easily be generated from the models. Basic 3D solids don’t usually include tools to easily allow the motion of the components, set their limits to their motion, or identify interference between components.

There are two types of 3D solid modeling. The top-end systems offer the capabilities to incorporate more organic, aesthetic and ergonomic features into the designs. Freeform surface modeling is often combined with solids to allow the designer to create products that fit the human form and visual requirements as well as they interface with the machine.

Originally software for CAD systems was developed with computer languages such as Fortran , ALGOL but with the advancement of object-oriented programming methods this has radically changed.

Typical modern parametric feature-based modeler and freeform surface systems are built around a number of key C modules with their own APIs. A geometry constraint engine may also be employed to manage the associative relationships between geometry, such as wireframe geometry in a sketch or components in an assembly.

Unexpected capabilities of these associative relationships have led to a new form of prototyping called digital prototyping.

In contrast to physical prototypes, which entail manufacturing time in the design. That said, CAD models can be generated by a computer after the physical prototype has been scanned using an industrial CT scanning machine. Depending on the nature of the business, digital or physical prototypes can be initially chosen according to specific needs.

Currently, no special hardware is required for most CAD software. However, some CAD systems can do graphically and computationally intensive tasks, so a modern graphics card , high speed and possibly multiple CPUs and large amounts of RAM may be recommended. The human-machine interface is generally via a computer mouse but can also be via a pen and digitizing graphics tablet.

Some systems also support stereoscopic glasses for viewing the 3D model. Technologies which in the past were limited to larger installations or specialist applications have become available to a wide group of users.

Starting around the mids, with the IBM Drafting System, computer-aided design systems began to provide more capability than just an ability to reproduce manual drafting with electronic drafting, the cost-benefit for companies to switch to CAD became apparent. The benefits of CAD systems over manual drafting are the capabilities one often takes for granted from computer systems today; automated generation of bills of materials , auto layout in integrated circuits , interference checking, and many others.

Eventually, CAD provided the designer with the ability to perform engineering calculations. CAD was a revolutionary change in the engineering industry, where draftsmen, designers, and engineering roles begin to merge.

It did not eliminate departments as much as it merged departments and empowered draftsmen, designers, and engineers. CAD is an example of the pervasive effect computers were beginning to have on the industry. Current computer-aided design software packages range from 2D vector -based drafting systems to 3D solid and surface modelers.

Modern CAD packages can also frequently allow rotations in three dimensions, allowing viewing of a designed object from any desired angle, even from the inside looking out. CAD technology is used in the design of tools and machinery and in the drafting and design of all types of buildings, from small residential types houses to the largest commercial and industrial structures hospitals and factories. CAD is mainly used for detailed engineering of 3D models or 2D drawings of physical components, but it is also used throughout the engineering process from conceptual design and layout of products, through strength and dynamic analysis of assemblies to definition of manufacturing methods of components.

It can also be used to design objects such as jewelry, furniture, appliances, etc. Furthermore, many CAD applications now offer advanced rendering and animation capabilities so engineers can better visualize their product designs. CAD has become an especially important technology within the scope of computer-aided technologies , with benefits such as lower product development costs and a greatly shortened design cycle.

CAD enables designers to layout and develop work on screen, print it out and save it for future editing, saving time on their drawings. In the beginning of , some CAD system software vendors might have shipped their distributions with a dedicated license manager software that might control how often or how many users can utilize CAD system. CAD software enables engineers and architects to design, inspect and manage engineering projects within an integrated graphical user interface GUI on a personal computer system.

Most applications support solid modeling with boundary representation B-Rep and NURBS geometry, and enable the same to be published in a variety of formats.

A geometric modeling kernel is a software component that provides solid modeling and surface modeling features to CAD applications. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Constructing a product by means of computer. For the currency, see Canadian dollar. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Comparison of computer-aided design editors. See also: History of CAD software. Lalit Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India. ISBN Mailmax Pub. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.

Handbook of computer aided geometric design [electronic resource]. The CAD guidebook : a basic manual for understanding and improving computer-aided design. New York: Marcel Dekker. OCLC Schumaker eds. Retrieved Archived from the original on Definition, Uses and More”. Computer Tech Reviews. Software Top CAD software. History of CAD software. Building information modeling BIM.

Outline Designer. Automotive design Automotive suspension design CMF design Corrugated box design Electric guitar design Furniture design Sustainable Hardware interface design Motorcycle design Packaging and labeling Photographic lens design Product design Production design Sensory design Service design. Algorithm design Behavioural design Boiler design Database design Drug design Electrical system design Experimental design Filter design Geometric design Work design Integrated circuit design Circuit design Physical design Power network design Mechanism design Nuclear weapon design Nucleic acid design Organization design Process design Processor design Protein design Research design Social design Software design Spacecraft design Strategic design Systems design.

Tools Intellectual property Organizations Awards. Categories : Computer-aided design Computer-aided design software Design engineering Engineering-related lists. Namespaces Article Talk.

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